Since Absurdity is a subtype of everything else in the type hierarchy, it inherits all of the properties from all other types. Therefore, it has conflicting properties, and hence nothing can exist which has the type Absurdity. Hence its name.
A term in programming language theory, as well as CG theory.
A parameter to a lambda expression can either be an actual parameter or a formal parameter.
For example, in the following usage of a lambda expression:
[Man: Socrates]<-([Man: ]->(Attr)->[Mortal])
"[Man: Socrates]" is the actual parameter which is substituted into the formal parameter "[Man: ]".
We see, then, that the notion "actual parameter" is complementary to the notion formal parameter.
See formal parameter for an example.
A term in programming and in linguistics.
patriarch(X) :- eq(X, Abraham).
Here, the variable X is the argument to the patriarch rule, and the arguments of the eq goal are X and Abraham.
Thus an argument can be both in the definition of a fact or rule (as in the definition of the patriarch rule) or in the usage of a fact or rule (as in the usage of the eq goal).
Sometimes, arguments are called parameters.
In linguistics, the arguments of a verb are those phrases which must necessarily be present in a clause for it to be semantically complete.
For example, the verb give requires three arguments:
Thus in the sentence "John gave the book to Mary", there are three arguments of the verb:
On the other hand, some phrases which might occur in such a sentence are not arguments of the verb, since they are not required to make a semantically complete clause. For example, in the sentence,
John gave the book to mary in the library.
The phrase in the library is not required for making a semantically complete clause. It is optional information. Thus, this phrase is a non-argument.
A term in Prolog.
For example, the arity of the following structure:
is 2, since there are two arguments.
The arity of a structure can be 0, meaning it has no arguments. For example,
is a structure with arity 0. A structure with arity 0 is also called an atomic constant (or simply "atom").
A term in linguistics.
Aspect is an inflectional or syntactic category of verbs which marks the internal temporal structure of the action. In other words, is the action completed or not? Does it happen all at once, or is it extended in time? Is it recurring (iterative) or ongoing?
The main categories which we find in languages are:
In English, the two major categories are 'Progressive' and 'Perfect'. Other Indo-European languages, however, have other categories.
Tense and aspect
Aspect is related to tense, but is distinct from this category (although the boundary is somewhat fluid). While aspect marks the internal temporal structure of the action, tense marks the temporal relationship between the time of the action and some reference time, usually the speaking-time. More information can be found in the glossary entry for tense.
As was just said, English has two major categories of aspect, perfect and progressive.
These two major categories of aspect can interact with all three tenses (and the categories of 'active', 'passive', 'indicative', and 'subjunctive') to form quite a few ways of expressing verbal ideas.
For example, "I am finishing my lunch" is in the present progressive tense and aspect, meaning the process of finishing my lunch is an on-going event that includes the present.
By contrast, "I have finished my lunch" is in the present perfect. It means that while the tense is present, the aspect is perfect, meaning that the action has been completed, but with current relevance.
Other examples include:
A term in Prolog.
For example, the following is an atomic constant:
Atomic constants are also simply called atoms.
An axiom is a proposition or statement which we decide to "take for granted", without proof. Axioms often form the foundation of our thinking; from the axioms, everything else should follow.
This is especially true of systems of logic and mathematics. For example, the theory of partial orders has three axioms. Everything else which we wish to know about partial orders follows from the three axioms.