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Catalog of individuals


A term in conceptual graph theory.


A catalog of individuals lists all of the individuals referred to in a knowledge base.

CG theory

In CG theory, a catalog of individuals is a concept of type CatalogOfIndividuals whose referent contains exactly one concept for each individual marker that appears in any concept in the knowledge base.


In Prolog+CG, a catalog of individuals is specified with the instantiation rule:

Type = instance, instance, ..., 

The instantiation rule consists of:

  1. An identifier referring to a type
  2. The equals sign ("=")
  3. A list of identifiers referring to instances of the type, and
  4. A trailing period, which closes off the rule.

For example:

Person = Peter, Paul, Mary.



A term in Prolog.


A clause is either a fact or a rule.



A term in ontology and CG theory.

Ontological definition

In ontology, a concept is an idea or thought in the mind which represents some entity in some world (real or imagined).

The entity in the real world is called the referent of the concept.

CG definition

In CG theory, a concept is a kind of node in a conceptual graph. It has:

Ontological example

If I am thinking of a piece of cheese in my refridgerator, I have an idea or thought in my mind which represents the cheese.

That idea or thought is a concept. The cheese itself is not in my mind, only a representation. That representation is called a concept.

Concept Type


A term in CG theory.

CG definition

In CG theory, a concept type is the type is of a concept.

It always has a placement in a concept type hierarchy.

It may in addition have one or more definition CGs defining the meaning of the concept type.

It may also have one or more canonical graphs describing typical usage of the concept type.

CG examples

The following could all be concept types:

  • Physical
  • Abstract
  • Object
  • Car
  • Man
  • Cat
  • Number
  • Theorem
  • Proof
  • Intention
  • Purpose
  • Mind

CG notation

The notation in CG syntax is to place the concept type right inside the opening "[" of the concept:

  • [Physical]
  • [Abstract]
  • [Object]
  • [Car]
  • [Man]
  • ... etc.

Conceptual Structure


A term in knowledge representation generally and in CG theory specifically.


A conceptual structure is:

Amine examples

Examples in Amine include: concept type, relation type, individual (instance of a type), and situation.

Knowledge base definition

More generally, a conceptual structure in a knowledge base is:

Knowledge base examples

Examples include (in addition to the ones above): Concepts, relations, and CGs.



A term in Prolog.


A constant is either a string constant, a or an atomic constant.