20 Sample conceptual relations


In this section, we give definitions and examples of conceptual relations which may prove useful when producing your own conceptual graphs. You are, of course, free to invent your own relations. The relations given here are all standard relations used in the CG literature.

Types of formal parameters are given in the headings

The types of the formal parameters to each relation are given in the heading. For example:

   Agnt(Act, Animate)

means that the first formal parameter is of type Act, while the second formal parameter is of type Animate.

This would mean that the concept that is attached to the first arc of Agnt (the one going towards the relation) would have to be a subtype of Act, while the concept attached to the second arc (the one going away from the relation) would have to be a subtype of Animate.

For example:

  [Breathe]->(Agnt)->[Person: Juliet]
  "Juliet is breathing"

Exercise: Match the concept types in the graph with the concept types in the definition

   Agnt(Act, Animate)


Format of descriptions

The descriptions of each relation define the concept type of the last arc that belongs to the relation. For example, the description of Agnt(Act, Animate) is:

An active animate entity that voluntarily initiates an act.

This describes the Animate entity, not the Act.

This convention has been adhered to in all descriptions.


We will be giving lots of examples. In the following sections, try to follow the logic behind the direction of the arrows. For example, if we are defining Agnt, try to follow the arrows and see why they have the direction they have.

Prev: Part VI: Reference
Up: Part VI: Reference
Next: 20.1 Relations