20.1 Relations


The following relations are described:

Agent; Agnt(Act,Animate)

An active animate entity that voluntarily initiates an act. For example:

   [Drive]->(Agnt)->[Person: Alfred]
   "Alfred drives"

Attribute; Attr(Object,Entity)

An entity that is a property of some object. For example:

   [Rhino: Otto]->(Attr)->[Orange]
   "Otto the rhino has an attribute which is orange."
   "Otto the rhino is orange."

Note how this contrasts with Characteristic.

Beneficiary; Benf(Act, Animate)

A beneficiary is a recipient of some act. The beneficiary also derives a benefit from the successful completion of the act.

   [Present: {*}]<-(Thme)<-[Give]->(Benf)->[Person: Alfred]
   "Presents are given to Alfred"

Characteristic; Chrc(Entity,Entity)

A type whose instances are properties of entities. E.g.,

   [Rhino: Otto]->(Chrc)->[Color: Orange]
   "Otto the rhino has a characteristic which is the Color Orange."
   "Otto the rhino is orange."

Note how this contrasts with Attribute. The arc pointing away from Chrc must point to a concept which has a type whose instances are properties. For example, "Color" is a type, but not a property. Color's instances are properties, such as 'Orange' or 'Red'.

The arc pointing away from an attribute (Attr), on the other hand, must point to a concept whose type is a property, e.g., Red. Thus Attr would not point to a concept of type Color, but only to concepts with types such as 'Red', 'Good', 'Wise', 'Intelligent', 'Bad', 'Immoral', etc.

Completion; Cmpl(TemporalProcess, Physical)

A goal of a completed process whose major tenet is that it takes place over time. This can, e.g., be a state or a situation.

   [Clothes]<-(Ptnt)<-[Process: Dry]->(Cmpl)->[State: Dry]
   "Clothes are drying until they are dry"

Destination; Dest(SpatialProcess, Physical)

A goal of a process whose major tenet is that it is spatial (i.e., occurs in space). For example:

   [Person: Romeo]<-(Agnt)<-[Go]->(Dest)->[City: Mantua]
   "Romeo is going to Mantua"

Duration; Dur(State,Interval)

The interval in which a state exists. For example:

   [Movie]<-(Thme)<-[Show]->(Dur)->[Interval: @120 min]
   "The movie showed for 120 minutes"

Effector; Efct(Entity,Entity)

An active entity (animate or inanimate) that initiates an action, but without voluntary intention.

   "A good tree will produce much fruit"

Experiencer; Expr(State, Animate)

An animate entity who experiences a state. The state is often a verb of perception, such as 'see', 'hear', 'think', 'like', 'dislike', etc.

   [Romeo]<-(Expr)<-[Hear]->(Thme)->[Sentence: 'Ay me']
   "Romeo is the experiencer of a hearing, 
      the theme of which is the sentence 'Ay me'."
   "Romeo hears the Sentence 'Ay me'"

Role; Has(Entity, Entity)

The Has relation is a primitive relation (not defined). It is used to define all of the relations in this section. It can also be used by itself. For example:

   [Person: ]->(Has)->[Part: @2 [Leg] ]
   "All persons have as part two legs."

Instrument; Inst(Act, Entity)

An instrument used in an act. The instrument is not changed by the activity.

          ->(Agnt)->[Person: Juliet *x]
          ->(Ptnt)->[Person: ?x]
   "Juliet stabs herself with a knife"

Location; Loc(Physical, Physical)

The place where something is or takes place.

   [Person: Prince]<-(Agnt)<-[Arrive]->(Loc)->[Location: Vault]
   "The prince arrives at the vault."

Manner; Manr(Process, Entity)

An entity that is a property of some process. In English, we often use adverbs to describe manners, e.g., quickly, slowly, tentatively. For example:

   [Researcher: Alfred]<-(Agnt)<-[Suggest]-
                    ->(Thme)->[Definition: #2.3]
   "Alfred the researcher tentatively suggested definition 2.3"

Measure; Meas(Attribute, Quantity)

A quantity used to describe an attribute. In English, the attribute will often be an adjective such as "clever", "fat", "long", "beautiful", etc. The quantity will either be a measure or a degree or the like. For example:

   [Person: John]->(Attr)->[Clever]->(Meas)->[Degree: #very]
   "John is very clever"
   [Person: James]->(Attr)->[Tall]->(Meas)->[Measure: <187,cm>]
   "James has an attribute which is tall, whose measure is 187 cm."
   "James is 187 cm tall"

Origin; Orgn(Process, Physical)

A physical participant in a process which is the source or originator of the process. For example:

   [Act : Take]-
     ->(Agnt)->[Person : Mary]
     ->(Orgn)->[Person : John]
     ->(Thme)->[Book : #]
   "Take is an act which has 
       an agent, which is Mary,
       and an origin, which is John,
       and a theme, which is the book."
   "Mary takes the book from John"
   [Appendix : #]<-(Thme)<-[Begin]->(Orgn)->[Page: 492]
   "The appendix is a theme of begin, which has an origin, which is page 492."
   "The appendix begins on page 492."

Part; Part(Object,Object)

An object which is a component/part of some other object. For example:

   "A leg is part of a body"

There is a very important distinction between an attribute and a part: Unlike an attribute, a part is capable of existing independently. For example, a wheel is capable of existing independently of the car of which it is a part. However, if the car is white, that is an attribute of the car, which cannot exist independently of the car:

   [Wheel: FrontLeftWheel]<-(Part)<-[Car: Alfred'sCar]
   "The front left wheel is part of Alfred's car"

   [Car: Alfred'sCar]->(Attr)->[White]
   "Alfred's car is white"

Path; Path(Process,Place)

A path describing a process.

For example:

   [Salesman: #]<-(Agnt)<-[Travel]->(Path)->[City: {Frederikshavn, Aalborg, Aars}]
   "The salesman travels via Frederikshavn, Aalborg, and Aars"

Possession; Poss(Animate,Entity)

An entity owned by some animate being.

For example:

   [Car: *x]<-(Thme)<-[Drive]->(Agnt)-
             ->[Person: Alfred]->(Poss)->[Car: ?x]
   "There is a car, x, which is the theme of drive, which has an agent,
    which is Alfred, which is the possessor of a car, x."
   "Alfred is driving his car"

PointInTime; PTim(Physical, Time)

An essential participant of a temporal togetherness (nexus).

For example:

   [Time: 5:13am]<-(PTim)<-[Situation: [Person: Romeo]<-(Agnt)<-[Leave]]
   "At 5:13am, Romeo leaves."

Patient; Ptnt(Process, Physical)

A participant in a process that undergoes a change during the course of the process.

          ->(Agnt)->[Person: Juliet *x]
          ->(Ptnt)->[Person: ?x]
   "Juliet stabs herself with a knife"

Recipient; Rcpt(Act, Animate)

An animate goal of an act. For example:

   [Person: Juliet]<-(Rcpt)<-[Give]-
                      ->(Agnt)->[Person: Romeo],
   "Romeo gives Juliet a kiss"

Result; Rslt(Process, Entity)

An inanimate goal of an act.

   [Person: John]<-(Agnt)<-[Brew]->(Rslt)->[CupOfTea: #42]
   "John brews cup of tea '42'"

Theme; Thme(Situation, Entity)

A participant that may be moved, said, or experienced, but is not structurally changed.

   [Person: Alfred]<-(Agnt)<-[Drive]->(Thme)->[Car: Alfred'sCar]
   "Alfred is driving Alfred's car"

   [Person: Juliet]<-(Agnt)<-[Say]->(Thme)->[Sentence: 'Ay me']
   "Juliet says 'Ay me'"

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