9.9 Referents (optional)


This is optional material, provided for those who are interested in knowing the full story about referents. It is not required reading. You can skip it by using the navigation-bar on the left.

Recall that a concept has a type and a referent, separated by a colon:

   [Type: Referent]

In this section, we define what a referent is, and also give some examples.

Definition of referent

A referent is made up of two things:

  1. Its quantifier, and
  2. Its designator.

These are placed immediately after each other.


A quantifier may be either:

  1. The existential quantifier, or
  2. A defined quantifier.


A designator may be either:

  1. A literal,
  2. A locator, or
  3. A descriptor.


Next, we discuss quantifiers first, then designators.

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