9.9.6 Summary


A concept has a type and a referent:

   [Type: Referent]


A referent is made up of two parts:

  1. Its quantifier
  2. Its designator


The quantifier tells us, e.g.:

  • whether the referent merely exists (blank or ),
  • whether the referent refers to all instances of the type of the concept ()
  • whether there is more than one instance of the referent
  • possibly how many (e.g., "@18")
  • possibly which ones (e.g., "{Peter,Paul,Mary}")


The designator tells us which particular individual the referent is referring to. A designator is either:

  • a literal, such as "18", "'abcdefg'", or "<37.5, DegreesCelsius>".
  • a locator, such as "John", "Aalborg", "#42", "#it", or "#".
  • a descriptor, such as "[PartyLight]->(Attr)->[Blue]".

Blank quantifiers and designators

If the quantifier is left blank, the quantifier is the existential quantifier, "there is". If the designator is left blank, it is a descriptor which is a blank conceptual graph, saying nothing about the referent.

Prev: 9.9.5 Descriptor
Up: 9.9 Referents (optional)
Next: 10 Coreferents