9.2 Queries

Introduction

We saw earlier that the way to interact with the Prolog system is to write queries and get a response. On this page, we look at queries in a little more detail.

Example program

Again, consider the by now familiar example program:

student(Lisa, 5).
student(Martin, 3).
student(John, 3).
student(Edward, 7).

An example query

If we ask the following question of the Prolog+CG system:

?- student(Lisa,5).

we get the following response:

{}

This requires some explanation.

Explanation

The

?-
sequence of symbols means "here starts a query." Prolog+CG prints it for you automatically in the query-area, and you don't need to write it. However, in these notes we will always write it in front of queries to show that we are dealing with a query.

The

{}
sequence of symbols means "yes". The question we asked:

?- student(Lisa, 5).

could be paraphrased as "Does there exist a student named Lisa who is in the fifth semester?", and since there was a fact in the database to match this query, the answer was "yes" or "{}".

A Query is terminated with a period

It will be noticed that the query, like a fact, is terminated with a period. You must always terminate your queries (as well as your facts) with a period.

When a query fails

If we asked the following question:

?- student(Abraham, 3).

the response would be:

no.

The reason is that there is no fact in the program database saying that there is a student named Abraham in the third semester. We say that the query fails.

Summary

Queries start with

?-
, but you don't need to write this -- Prolog+CG writes it for you on the screen. If the answer to a question is "yes", the response will be
{}
. If the answer to a question is "no", the response will be
no.
. Queries must be terminated with a period.

Next

Next, we look at goals and subgoals in queries. This is essential terminology when talking about Prolog queries and programs.


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