7.2.2 Utterance


An utterance is something (thme) that is said by somebody (agnt) to somebody (rcpt). It can also have other relations, such as manner (manr), time (ptim), characteristic (chrc), etc.

What is said is usually nested inside a proposition.


     -AGNT->[Animate],           // Speaker
     -RCPT->[Animate],           // Hearer
     -MANR->[Attribute],         // Optional
     -CHRC->[Attribute],         // Optional
     -PTIM->[Time_reference],    // Optional
     -THME->[Proposition = ...]  // What is said

Examples of template

// Utterance-template example
// Available in the AAU directory as Utterance-template.plgCG
// Ulrik Petersen
// Created: mid-September, 2003
// Last update: September 18, 2003

// Type hierarchy
Entity > Physical, Abstract.
Abstract > Proposition, Manner.
Proposition > Property.
Property > Beautiful, Fast.
Manner > Awedly.
Physical > Act, Object.
Object >Person, Shawl, Car.
Act > Utterance.

// Catalog of instances
Person = Susan, Farhana, Sadia, Mark, Marzia, Mudhaffar.

// Template examples

// Susan says to Farhana: "Sadia's shawl is beautiful."
graph(uttr1, [Utterance]-
                        -AGNT->[Person: Susan],
                        -RCPT->[Person: Farhana],
                        -THME->[Proposition = [Shawl]-
                                    -POSS->[Person: Sadia],

// Mark says awedly to Marzia: "Mudhaffar's car is fast."
graph(uttr2, [Utterance]-
                        -AGNT->[Person: Mark],
                        -RCPT->[Person: Marzia],
                        -THME->[Proposition = [Car]-
                                      -POSS->[Person: Mudhaffar],

// Example of a rule

// Speaker (S) taks to Hearer (H) in graph with label L
Talks(S,H,L) :- graph(L, G), 
                branchOfCG([Utterance]-AGNT->[Person: S], G),
                branchOfCG([Utterance]-RCPT->[Person: H], G).

Example rule

We have included a rule to show how to exploit this template.

The predicate "Talks(S,H,L)" finds the speaker (S), hearer (H) and graph-label (L) of the graph in question.

If we ask the query:

?- Talks(S,H,L).

We get the following answer:

{S = Susan, H = Farhana, L = uttr1}
{S = Mark, H = Marzia, L = uttr2}


This template is from the work of Henrik Schärfe.

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