7.3.4 Garfield

Example of exploiting transitivity

Consider the following Prolog+CG program:

// Type-hierarchy
//
// Example of exploiting transitivity of type-hierarchy
// Available in the AAU directory as "GarfieldOdieJon.plgCG"

// Type-hierarchy
Entity > Animate, Act.
Animate > Animal, Human. 
Animal > Cat, Dog.

// Catalog of instances
Cat = Garfield.
Dog = Odie.
Human = Jon.
Act = Kick, Like, Love.

// Graphs

// Garfield kicks Odie
graph(gr1, [Cat: Garfield]<-AGNT-[Act: Kick]-PTNT->[Dog: Odie]).

// Jon likes Garfield
graph(gr2, [Human: Jon]<-AGNT-[Act: Like]-THME->[Cat: Garfield]).

// Odie likes Garfield
graph(gr3, [Dog: Odie]<-AGNT-[Act: Like]-THME->[Cat: Garfield]).

// Garfield loves Garfield
graph(gr4, [Cat: Garfield]<-AGNT-[Act: Love]-THME->[Cat: Garfield]).


// Rules
AnimalDoes(L,G) :- graph(L, G), subsume([Animal]<-AGNT-[Act], G).
AnimateDoes(L,G) :- graph(L, G), subsume([Animate]<-AGNT-[Act], G).

If we now ask the query:

?- AnimalDoes(L,G).

We get the following answer:

{L = gr1, G = [Act : Kick] -
                           -PTNT->[Dog : Odie],
                           -AGNT->[Cat : Garfield]}
{L = gr3, G = [Act : Like] -
                           -THME->[Cat : Garfield],
                           -AGNT->[Dog : Odie]}
{L = gr4, G = [Act : Love] -
                           -THME->[Cat : Garfield],
                           -AGNT->[Cat : Garfield]}

This reflects the fact that both "Dog" and "Cat" are subtypes of "Animal". Since the "subsume" goal looks for graphs which are more general than other graphs, all of these three graphs match the graph which has "Animal" in it.

Likewise, if we ask the query:

?- AnimateDoes(L,G).

We get the following answer:

{L = gr1, G = [Act : Kick] -
                           -PTNT->[Dog : Odie],
                           -AGNT->[Cat : Garfield]}
{L = gr2, G = [Act : Like] -
                           -THME->[Cat : Garfield],
                           -AGNT->[Human : Jon]}
{L = gr3, G = [Act : Like] -
                           -THME->[Cat : Garfield],
                           -AGNT->[Dog : Odie]}
{L = gr4, G = [Act : Love] -
                           -THME->[Cat : Garfield],
                           -AGNT->[Cat : Garfield]}

This is the same answer as before, except that graph 2, "Jon likes Garfield" is also in the results. This is because "Human" is a subtype of "Animate", just like "Dog" and "Cat" are.


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