9.10 Summary

Inserting a subtype

Inserting a subtype proceeds like this:

  1. Click a node to select it.
  2. Right-click it to display a pop-up menu.
  3. Select "Insert" from the pop-up menu.
  4. Select "(Sub)Type" from the second pop-up menu.
  5. Write the name of the new type.
  6. Click "OK".

Inserting an individual

Inserting an individual proceeds in the same manner as inserting a subtype, except that one chooses "Individual" in step 4 instead of "(Sub)Type".

Physical and Abstract

The distinction between "Physical" and "Abstract" goes back to the Greek philosopher Heraclitus. It is fundamental in many ontological frameworks.


An Object is a Physical thing which has independent existence and which endures over time. Examples include humans, cars, animals, and stars.

Processes and Acts

A Process is a physical thing which takes place in a time-span that is shorter than that of an object.

An Act is a Process. Examples include "Drive", "Eat", "Walk", "Shower", and "Read".


In Module 1, there is a whole catalog of standard relations, some of which we have added to our ontology.

All relations are subtypes of the special "Relation" conceptual structure. We could have organized the relations in a hierarchy with subtypes and subtypes of subtypes, but for simplicity's sake, we have chosen to make them all immediate subtypes of "Relation".


A type is a category or group of individuals with similar traits.

"Pluto", "Odie", and "Fido" are individuals of type "Dog", whereas "Alfred" could be an individual of type "Man".

PrevLite: 9.9 The final product
NextLite: 10 Adding CGs

Prev: 9.9 The final product
Up: 9 Building an ontology
Next: 10 Adding CGs