12.1 Operations

Man and Adult

As an example, let us investigate the types 'man' and 'adult':

  1. Load the Man-Woman-Boy-Girl example.

  2. Click on the tab "Types Hierarchy Operations".

  3. Write "man" and "adult" in the two edit boxes as follows:


The buttons in the lower half of the screen calls various functions.


IsSubType investigates if Type 1 is a subtype of Type 2. In this example: is 'man' a subtype of 'adult'? The result is true, whereas the inverse IsSuperType is false.


DirectSubTypes and DirectSuperTypes only apply to the first type (Type 1), and traverse the hierarchy in order to investigate the types immediately below and above the type in question. In this case, 'man' has no subtypes at all, but two direct super types: 'male' and 'adult'.


AllSubTypes and AllSuperTypes naturally perform similar actions, but reports all nodes from the type in question to the bottom and the top of the hierarchy, respectively. The type 'man' still has no subtypes, but the supertypes: male, adult, sex, age, and universal.


MaximalCommonSubType and MinimalCommonSuperType make use of multiple inheritance. MaximalCommonSubType reports the highest node in the hierarchy that is a subtype of both Type 1 and Type 2. The reverse, MinimalCommonSuperType, reports the lowest node in the hierarchy that is a supertype of both Type 1 and Type 2. If we investigate the types 'female' and 'juvenile', we find that the maximal common subtype is 'girl', and the minimal common supertype is 'universal'.

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